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Dr Stuart Haigh

Dr Stuart Haigh

Reader in Geotechnical Engineering

Stuart Haigh is accepting applications for PhD students.

Stuart Haigh is available for consultancy.

Schofield Centre
High Cross
Madingley Road

Cambridge , Cambs CB3 0EL
Office Phone: +44 (0)1223 768052

Departments and Institutes

Department of Engineering:
University Senior Lecturer

Research Interests

Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering

  • Liquefaction and Remediation methods
  • Lateral Spreading of Slopes during Earthquakes
  • Earthquake Field Investigations
  • Dynamic Finite Element Analysis
  • Behaviour of piles under cyclic loading


Offshore Soil Mechanics

  • Pipeline Soil Interaction
  • Upheaval Buckling
  • Behaviour of Blocky Clays
  • Thermal properties of soils
  • Monopile Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines


Soil Behaviour

  • Atterberg limits of soils
  • Airfield Pavement Design


Equipment Development for Geotechnical Research


  • Centrifuge Development
  • Earthquake Actuators for Centrifuge Model Testing
  • Image analysis for 3D displacement measurement


  • 3D1 Geotechnical Engineering I
  • 3D2 Geotechnical Engineering II
  • 4D5 Foundation Engineering
  • 4D6 Civil Engineering Dynamics
  • 5R5 Advanced Experimental Methods in Geotechnical Engineering

Key Publications

Open access versions of some papers are available in the Cambridge University DSpace repository where allowed by publishers' copyright agreements.


Schofield, A.N. & Haigh, S.K. (2017) Disturbed Soil Properties and Geotechnical Design. ICE Publishing

Haigh, S.K. (ed.) (2015) Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. ICE Publishing.

Madabhushi, S.P.G., Knappett, J.A. & Haigh, S.K. (2010) Design of Pile Foundations in Liquefiable Soils. Imperial College Press

Journal Papers

[70] Vardanega, P.J., Haigh, S.K. & O'Kelly, B.C. (2021) Use of Fall-Cone Flow Index for Soil Classification: A New Plasticity Chart. Accepted for publication by Geotechnique

[69] Madabhushi S.S.C. & Haigh, S.K. (2020) Dual Row Retaining Walls in Dry Sand: The Influence of Wall Stiffness on the Seismic Response. Accepted by Canadian Geotechnical Journal.

[68] Futai, M., Haigh, S.K. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2020) Comparison of the dynamic responses of monopiles and gravity base foundations for offshore wind turbines in sand using centrifuge modelling. Soils & Foundations. doi:10.1016/j.sandf.2020.10.009

[67] Canavera-Herrera J.S. MacAskill, K. & Haigh, S.K. (2020) Identifying interactions between policy, accountability and outcomes for adaptation of urban roads. Transportation Research Part D 88:102595. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2020.102595

[66] Ishihara, Y., Ogawa, N., Mori, Y., Haigh, S.K. & Matsumori, T. (2020) Simplified static vertical loading test on sheet piles using press-in piling machine. Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication, 8(7) 245-250. doi: 10.3208/jgssp.v08.j32 (open access)

[65] Deng, C. & Haigh, S.K. (2020) Sand deformation mechanisms mobilised with active retaining wall movement.  Geotechnique. doi:10.1680/jgeot.20.P.041

[64] Hata, T., Clara Saracho, A., Haigh, S.K., Yoneda, J & Yamamoto, K. (2020) Microbial-induced calcite precipitation applicability with the Methane Hydrate-bearing layer microbe. Natural Gas Science & Engineering 81 103490. doi: 10.1016/j.jngse.2020.103490

[63] Shafiq, Y., Haigh, S.K., Holm, R. & Parker, A. (2020)  Re-evaluating the strength of pit-latrine faecal sludge by calibrating the dynamic cone penetrometer test. Water SA 46(4) 638-644 doi:10.17159/wsa/2020.v46.i4.9077 (open access)

[62] Ishihara, Y., Haigh, S.K. & Koseki, J (2020) Assessment of base capacity of open-ended tubular piles installed by the Rotary Cutting Press-in Method. Soils & Foundations 60(5) 1189-1201 doi:10.1016/j.sandf.2020.07.006 (open access)

[61] Clara Saracho, A., Haigh, S.K., Hata, T., Soga, K., Farsang, S., Redfern, S.A.T. & Marek, E. (2020) Characterisation of CaCO3 phases during strain-specific ureolytic precipitation. Scientific Reports 10 10168. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-66831-y  (open access) 

[60] Clara Saracho, A., Haigh, S.K., Jorat, M.E. (2020) Flume study on the effects of microbial induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) on the erosional behaviour of sand. Geotechnique. doi:10.1680/jgeot.19.p.350

[59] Kariyawasam, K.D.,  Middleton, C., Madabhushi, S.P.G., Haigh, S.K. & Talbot, J.P.  (2020) Assessment of bridge natural frequency as a measure of scour using centrifuge modelling. Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring 10 861-881. doi: 10.1007/s13349-020-00420-5

[58] Eichhorn, G., Haigh, S.K., Bowman, A. & Stanier, S.A. (2020) Low cost digital image correlation and strain measurement for geotechnical applications. Strain. doi: 10.1111/str.12348

[57] Haigh, S.K. (2020) Flotation of pipes and cables in consolidating backfill. Geotechnique. doi: 10.1680/jgeot.18.T.038

[56] Deng, C.,  Haigh, S.K., Ma, X. & Xu, J.  (2020) A design method for flexible retaining walls in clay. Geotechnique doi: 10.1680/jgeot.19.p.095

[55] Madabhushi, S.S.C. & Haigh, S.K.  (2019) Centrifuge testing of dual row retaining walls in dry sand: the influence of earthquake sequence and multiple flightsInternational Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering125 doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2019.05.029 

[54]  Haigh, S.K., Vardanega, P.J.  &  O'Kelly, B.C (2019) Discussion of ‘Factors influencing undrained strength of fine-grained soils at high water contents’ by H. B. Nagaraj, M.V. Sravan and B. S. Deepa.  Geomechanics & GeoEngineering. doi: 10.1080/17486025.2019.1674453

[53] Vardanega, P.J., O'Kelly, B.C.  & Haigh, S.K. (2020) Discussion of "Reclaimed Lignin-stabilised silty soil: undrained shear strength, Atterberg limits and microstructure characteristics by T Zhang, G. Cui & S Liu". Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 32(3) doi:10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0003064

[52] Futai, M.M., Dong, J., Haigh, S.K. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2018) Dynamic response of monopiles in sand using centrifuge modelling. International Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. 115 90-103 doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2018.08.007

[51] Bowman, A & Haigh, S.K. (2019) Subsurface deformation mechanisms beneath a flexible pavement using image correlation. Geotechnique 69(7) 627-637 doi: 10.1680/jgeot.18.P.092

[50] Madabhushi, S.S.C. & Haigh, S.K. (2019)  Using tactile pressure sensors to measure dynamic earth pressures around dual-row walls. International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 19(2) 58-71. doi: 10.1680/jphmg.17.00053

[49] Ojaghi, M, Lamata Martinez, I, Dietz, M.S., Williams, M.S., Blakeborough, A, Crewe, A.J., Taylor, C.A. Madabhushi, S.P.G. & Haigh, S.K. (2018) Geographically distributed hybrid testing and collaboration between geotechnical centrifuge and structures laboratories. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration 17(1) 53-71 doi: 10.1007/s11803-018-0425-1

[48] O'Kelly, B.C., Vardanega, P.J. & Haigh, S.K. (2018) Use of Fall Cones to Determine Atterberg Limits: A Review. Geotechnique 64(10) 843-856 doi: 10.1680/jgeot.17.R.039

              discussion: Geotechnique doi: 10.1680/jgeot.19.D.003 & 10.1680/jgeot.18.D.001

[47] Zeghal M, Goswami N, Kutter BL, Manzari MT, Abdoun T, Arduino PArmstrong RBeaty MChen YMGhofrani AHaigh S.K.Hung WYIai SKokkali PLee CJMadabhushi S.P.GTobita TUeda KZhou YGZiotopoulou K (2018) Stress-strain response of the LEAP-2015 centrifuge tests and numerical predictions. International Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 113 804-818. doi: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.10.014

[46] Vardanega, P.J. & Haigh, S.K. (2017) Discussion of ‘‘Water Content Ratio: An Effective Substitute for Liquidity Index for Prediction of Shear Strength of Clays’’ by Beshy Kuriakose, Benny Mathews Abraham, A. Sridharan & Babu T. Jose. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 3530393044. doi:10.1007/s10706-017-0290-0 

[45] Manzari, M.T., El Ghoraiby, M., Kutter, B.L., Zeghal, M., Abdoun, T., Arduino, P., Armstong, R.J., Beaty, M., Carey, T., Chen, Y., Ghofrani, A., Gutierrez, D., Goswami, N., Haigh, S.K., Hung, W-Y., Iai, S., Kokkali, P., Lee, C-J., Madabhushi, S.P.G., Mejia, L., Sharp, M., Tobita, T., Ueda, K., Zhou, Y. & Ziotopoulou, K. (2017) Liquefaction experiment and analysis projects (LEAP): Summary of observations from the planning phase. International Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering.  113 714-743 doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.015

[44] Kutter, B. L., Carey, T. J., Hashimoto, T.,  Zeghal, M.,  Abdoun, T.,  Kokkali, P.  Madabhushi, S.P.G., Haigh, S. K., Burali d'Arezzo, F., Madabhushi, S.S.C., Hung, W. Y., Lee, C. J., Cheng, H. C., Iai, S., Tobita, T., Ashino, T., Ren, J., Zhou, Y. G., Chen, Y. M., Sun, Z. B. & Manzari, M. T. (2017) LEAP-GWU-2015 experiment specifications, results, and comparisons. International Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 113 616-628. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.018

[43] Madabhushi, S.S.C., Haigh, S.K. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2018) LEAP-GWU-2015: Centrifuge and numerical modelling of slope liquefaction at the University of Cambridge. International Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. 113 671-681 doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.11.009

[42] Alrtimi, A., Rouainia, M. & Haigh, S.K. (2016) Thermal conductivity of a sandy soil. Applied Thermal Engineering. 106 551-560 doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.06.012

[41] Haigh, S.K. (2016) Consistency of the Casagrande liquid limit test. Geotechnical Testing Journal. 39(1) 13-19 doi: 10.1520/GTJ20150093

[40] Sivakumar, V., O’Kelly, B. C., Henderson, L., Moorhead, C., Chow, S.H., Haigh, S.K. & Vardanega, P.J. (2016) Discussion of “Measuring the plastic limit of fine soils: an experimental study”.  ICE Proceedings: Geotechnical Engineering 169(1) 86-89 doi: 10.1680/jgeen.15.00090

[39] Madabhushi, S.S.C. & Haigh, S.K. (2015) Investigating the changing deformation mechanism beneath shallow foundations.  Geotechnique 65(8) 684-693  doi: 10.1680/geot.14.P.226

[38] Ishihara, Y., Haigh, S.K. & Bolton, M.D. (2015) Estimating base resistance and N value in rotary press-in. Soils & Foundations 55(4) 788-797 doi:10.1016/j.sandf.2015.06.011

[37] Heron, C.M., Haigh, S.K. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2015) A new macro-element model encapsulating the dynamic moment-rotation behaviour of raft foundations.  Geotechnique 65(5) 442-451 doi: 10.1680/geot.SIP.15.P.020

[36] Burali d'Arezzo, F., Haigh, S.K., Talesnick, M. & Ishihara, Y. (2015) Measuring horizontal stresses during jacked pile installation. ICE Proceedings: Geotechnical Engineering 168(4) 306–318 doi:10.1680/geng.14.00069

[35] Chian, S.C., Wang, J. , Haigh, S.K. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2015) Soil deformation during monotonic and seismic pipe uplift in liquefiable soil.   Journal of Pipeline Engineering 14(1) Link

[34] Haigh, S.K. & Vardanega, P.J. (2014) Fundamental basis of single-point liquid limit measurement approaches.  Applied Clay Science 102 8-14 doi: 10.1016/j.clay.2014.10.011

[33] Madabhushi, S.S.C., Elshafie, M.Z.E.B. & Haigh, S.K. (2014) Accuracy of distributed optical fibre temperature sensing for use in leak detection of subsea pipelines. ASCE Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice. 6(2) 04014014 doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)PS.1949-1204.0000189

[32] Lam, S.Y., Haigh, S.K. & Bolton, M.D. (2014) Understanding ground deformation mechanisms for multi-propped excavation in soft clay. Soils & Foundations 54(3) 296-312 doi: 10.1016/j.sandf.2014.04.005

[31] Vardanega, P.J. & Haigh, S.K. (2014) The undrained strength-liquidity index relationship. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 51(9) 1073-1086 doi: 10.1139/cgj-2013-0169

[30] McMahon, B.T., Haigh, S.K. & Bolton, M.D. (2014) Bearing capacity and settlement of circular shallow foundations using a non-linear constitutive relationship. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 51(9) 995-1003 doi: 10.1139/cgj-2013-0275

[29] Haigh, S.K. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2014) Discussion of “Performance of a transparent flexible shear beam container for geotechnical centrifuge modelling of dynamic problems by Ghayoomi, Dashti and McCartney”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2014.02.003

[28] Diakoumi, M., Powrie, W. & Haigh, S.K. (2013) Discussion of "Mobilisable strength design for flexible embedded retaining walls". Geotechnique 63(12) 1080-1082 doi: 10.1680/geot.13.D.01

[27] McMahon, B.T., Haigh, S.K. & Bolton, M.D. (2013) Optimal displacement mechanisms beneath shallow foundations on linear-elastic perfectly plastic soil. Geotechnique 63(16) 1447-1450 doi:10.1680/geot.13.T.002

[26] Heron, C.M., Lam, A., Haigh, S.K. & Madabhushi, S.P.G (2013) Imaging the Failure of a Rock-fill Dam Following Liquefaction. Dams & Reservoirs 23(1) 15-24 doi:10.1680/dare.13.00005

[25] Vinod, P., Sridharan, A., Deepa, K.A., Haigh, S.K. & Vardanega, P.J. (2013) Discussion of “Remoulded shear strength at plastic and semi-solid states”. ICE Proceedings: Geotechnical Engineering 166(5) 515-517 doi:10.1680/geng.12.00093

[24] McMahon, B.T., Haigh, S.K. & Bolton, M.D. (2013) Cavity expansion model for the bearing capacity of circular shallow foundations on clay. Geotechnique 63(9) 746-752 doi:10.1680/geot.12.P.061

[23] Haigh, S.K., Vardanega, P.J. & Bolton, M.D. (2013) The plastic limit of clays. Geotechnique 63(6) 435-440 doi:10.1680/geot.11.P.123

discussion: Geotechnique 64(7) 584-586 doi:10.1680/geot.13.D.06

[22] Haigh, S.K. & Vardanega, P.J. (2012) Discussion of "Re-examination of undrained strength at Atterberg Limits Water Contents" by H.B. Nagaraj, A. Sridharan & H.M. Mallikarjuna. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. 30(6) 1389-1391 doi: 10.1007/s10706-012-9543-0

[21] Li, Z., Bolton, M.D. & Haigh, S.K. (2012) Cyclic axial behaviour of piles and pile groups in sand. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 49(9) 1074-1087 doi:10.1139/T2012-070

[20] Madabhushi, S.P.G. & Haigh, S.K. (2012) How well do we understand earthquake induced liquefaction? Indian Geotechnical Journal 42(3) 150-160 doi: 10.1007/s40098-012-0018-2

[19] Haigh, S.K. (2012) Mechanics of the Casagrande liquid limit test. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 49(9) 1015-1023 doi:10.1139/T2012-066

with corrigenda doi: 10.1139/t2012-081 & 10.1139/cgj-2012-0380

discussion doi: 10.1139/t2012-089 & reply 10.1139/t2012-092

[18] Madabhushi, S.P.G., Haigh, S.K., Houghton, N.E. & Gould, E. (2012) Development of a servo-hydraulic earthquake actuator for the Cambridge Turner beam centrifuge. International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 12(2) 77-88 doi: 10.1680/ijpmg.11.00013

[17] Haigh, S.K. (2012) Thermal conductivity of sands. Geotechnique, 62(7) 617-625. doi:10.1680/geot.11.P.043

[16] Vardanega, P.J., Lau, B.H., Lam, S.Y.,  Haigh, S.K., Madabhushi, S.P.G. & Bolton, M.D. (2012) Laboratory measurement of strength mobilization in kaolin: link to stress history. Geotechnique Letters 2 9-15 doi:10.1680/geolett.12.00003

discussion doi: 10.1680/geolett.13.00005

[15] Wang, J., Haigh, S.K., Forrest, G. & Thusyanthan, I, (2012) Mobilization distance for upheaval buckling of pipelines. ASCE Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice  3(4) 106-114 doi:10.1061/(ASCE)PS.1949-1204.0000099

[14] Li, Z.,  Haigh, S.K. & Bolton, M.D., (2012) Effect of previous cyclic axial loads on pile groups.  International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, 12(1) 15-23 doi:10.1680/ijpmg.2012.12.1.15

[13] Lam, S.Y., Elshafie, M.Z.E.B., Haigh, S.K. & Bolton, M.D., (2012) Development of a new apparatus for modeling deep excavation related problems in geotechnical centrifuge.  International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, 12(1) 24-38 doi:10.1680/ijpmg.2012.12.1.24

[12] Haigh S.K., Eadington, J. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2012) Permeability and stiffness of sands at very low effective stresses. Geotechnique 62(1) 69-75. doi:10.1680/geot.10.P.035

[11] Cilingir U., Haigh S.K., Madabhushi, S.P.G. & Zeng, X. (2011) Seismic behaviour of anchored quay walls with dry backfill. Geomechanics and GeoEngineering 6(3) 227-235 doi:10.1080/17486025.2011.578670

[10] Haigh, S.K. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2011) Centrifuge modelling of pile-soil interaction in liquefiable slopes. Geomechanics and Engineering 3(1) 1-16 doi:10.12989/gae.2011.3.1.001

[9] Z. Li, S.K. Haigh & M.D. Bolton (2010) The Behavior of a Single Pile under Cyclic Axial Loads. In Deep Foundations and Geotechnical In Situ Testing, ASCE Special Publication 205, 143-148 doi:10.1061/41106(379)17

[8] Li, Z., Haigh, S.K. & Bolton., M.D. (2010) The response of pile groups under cyclic lateral loads. International Journal on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 10(2) 47-57 doi:10.1680/ijpmg.2010.10.2.47

[7] Madabhushi, S.P.G. & Haigh, S.K., (2009) Effect of Superstructure Stiffness on Liquefaction-induced Failure Mechanisms. Journal of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering 1(1) 70-87 doi:10.4018/jgee.2010090805

[6] Coelho, P.A.L.F, Haigh, S.K., Madabhushi, S.P.G. & O'Brien A.S. (2007) Post-earthquake behaviour of footings employing densification to mitigate liquefaction. Ground Improvement, 11(1) 45-53 doi:10.1680/grim.2007.11.1.45

[5] Knappett, J.A., Haigh, S.K. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2006) Mechanisms of failure for shallow foundations under earthquake loading. International Journal of Soil Dynamics & Earthquake Engineering, 26(2-4) 91-102. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2004.11.021

[4] Madabhushi, S.P.G. and Haigh, S.K., (2005), Performance of Earth Dams during the Bhuj Earthquake of 26th January 2001, Dams and Reservoirs, Journal of British Dam Society, Institution of Civil Engineers, 15(3) 14-24.

[3] Haigh, S.K. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2005) The effects of Pile Flexibility on Pile-Loading in Laterally Spreading Slopes. In Seismic Performance of Pile Foundations in Liquefied and Laterally Spreading Ground, ASCE Special Publication 145, 24-37

[2] Haigh, S.K., Ghosh, B. & Madabhushi, S.P.G. (2005) The effect of time step discretisation on dynamic finite element analysis. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 42(3) 957-963 doi:10.1139/T05-022

[1] Haigh, S.K., Teymur, B., Madabhushi, S.P.G. & Newland, D.E. (2002) Applications of Wavelet Analysis to the Investigation of the Dynamic Behaviour of Geotechnical Structures. International Journal of Soil Dynamics & Earthquake Engineering 22(9-12) 995-1005 doi:10.1016/S0267-7261(02)00124-0

Sand Deformation Mechanisms Mobilised with Active Retaining Wall Movement" 



Other Publications

Other Publications can be found in my publications list